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- January 1, 2008 - December 31, 2011
has contribution area
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has USDA Area
impact statement impact
- The most visible impact(s) that these detection and surveillance efforts have had are best exemplified by various new pest discoveries that have resulted. For example, the first-time discovery of the Asian longhorned beetle in New York City (initial identification made at Cornell by Hoebeke) in 1996 led to its ultimate detection in other areas in the greater New York City region, Long Island, Chicago, New Jersey, and Toronto. Today, nearly 13 years after its detection, this serious forest pest, a native of China, has cost millions of dollars in control and eradication efforts. Over 7,000 infested trees from these combined areas have been removed and destroyed. Many more hundreds of susceptible trees are being removed in the Toronto and Carteret/Linden, N.J., quarantine sites in hopes of preventing the spread of this invasive beetle. In August 2008, Asian longhorned beetle was again found in Worcester, Mass., and today over 65 sq. miles are under quarantine, and nearly 6,000 trees have been identified as infested by this exotic pest. This infestation may be the largest in North America and appears to date back to at least 1997. Eradication and control measures for the Asian longhorned beetle to date have cost U.S. stakeholders nearly $275 million. Based on current federal funding levels, it is likely to take another 20 years to successfully conclude the program. In the past few years, other exotic wood-boring beetles and bark beetles have been identified as new to North America. Recently, another invasive tree-killing pest has been detected in New York as a result of the state's Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) program (and my initial identification). Sirex noctilio, an Old World woodwasp, was discovered in Fulton, N.Y., in late 2004. An extensive delimiting survey (trapping program) for this species from 2005 to 2007 has confirmed its establishment in 29 counties in New York, six counties of northern Pennsylvania, one county in western Vermont, and one county in eastern Michigan. The species is also widespread in adjacent southern and central Ontario. The introduction of a biological control agent (a nematode) has been initiated in New York (in 2007).
impact statement issue
- Ports of entry in the Northeast (New England and Canadian Maritime provinces) and Pacific Northwest are especially vulnerable to invasion by exotic, and sometimes invasive, organisms. Accurate identification of potential pest threats is a key element for distinguishing exotic from native species and for establishing containment and management strategies. To date, nearly 2,500 exotic insects have established populations in North America (over the past 500 years), and many of these, in fact over 400, have become serious pests of forest trees and woody ornamentals. Several of these exotic species have significantly altered forest ecosystems in the United States, such as the gypsy moth and hemlock woolly adelgid. As world trade and international travel continue to expand, the threat of new invasions increases. Many of the alien tree-infesting insects that enter the United States annually are associated with solid wood packaging such as crates, pallets, and dunnage; others are unintentionally introduced as hitchhikers/stowaways associated with various cargo and commodities. Two recent exotic hitchhikers in the United States—the Asian longhorned beetle and emerald ash borer—were both likely introduced with infested wooden articles shipped to the United States from China. The risk that these new forest pests pose can only be minimized through close inspections of crated cargo entering the United States, stricter regulations, and, most important, rigorous detection surveys (visual and traps) to detect newly established exotic pests.
impact statement response
- E. R. Hoebeke's research concentrates on documenting the arrival and spread of foreign insects in the United States. His project involves survey sampling and insect collecting in and around high-risk port-of-entry sites in the Northeast and Pacific Northwest. The majority of these sites are in and around major seaports and airports, particularly in disturbed industrial sites and railroad right-of-ways near warehouses. A thorough knowledge of the native insect fauna is imperative to identify the alien element that might be established and co-occurring with the native species. Very often, alien invasions go unnoticed until ecological and economic impacts are recognized. Therefore, rigorous surveys, by highly trained taxonomists, are necessary to make rapid detection of potential pests. The goals of this project are early detection of immigrant agricultural and forest pests, evaluation of their pest status, and implementation of control or eradication programs. These detection and surveillance activities are integral to the various safeguarding programs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, and the National and Regional Plant Boards. In 2009, a major focus was on the detection of and survey for exotic tree-infesting pests in the Northwest, especially alien species that impact trees and ornamental shrubs.
impact statement summary
- Accurate and timely pest identification activities are crucial and a prerequisite to facilitate rapid response to the inadvertent introduction of invasive plant pests into the United States. As a trained identification specialist, my research centers on screening commonly encountered species, as well as the uncommon species, collected during organized surveillance activities at or near ports of entry along the northeastern seaboard and the Pacific Northwest. My identification and detection activities support the regulatory mandate of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and pose a "second line of defense" in the safeguarding process, respectively. Early detection of potentially dangerous invasive insect pests through accurate identification and delimiting surveys makes rapid response possible in mitigating these biological invasions and protecting our plant resources.
- Cornell Dept. of Entomology; NY Partner (Cornell Dept. of Entomology)
- Dept. of Agriculture & Markets; New York Partner (Dept. of Agriculture & Markets)
- Dept. of Environmental Conservation; NY Partner (Dept. of Environmental Conservation)
- Hoebeke, Edward Richard Researcher
- U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, APHIS, PPQ; NY , other states in NE Partner (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, APHIS, PPQ)
- USDA, Forest Service; New Haven, CT Partner (USDA, Forest Service)
- Both Basic Research and Applied Research
- Hoebeke, Edward Richard Cornell Academic Staff
USDA area other
- Safeguarding American agriculture and forestry